Keystone IAS Academy

Russia has offered compensation and citizenship to the families of Indians who died fighting in Ukraine


Recently, Russia has offered compensation and citizenship to the families of Indians who died fighting in Ukraine alongside Russian forces. This follows Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s request for the early return of Indians who were coerced into combat roles by Russian authorities, prompting demands from families for a clear timeline on their loved ones’ safe return from the conflict zone.


Russia has agreed to compensate and offer citizenship to families of Indians killed in the Ukraine conflict, following PM Modi’s request for the return of Indian citizens forced to fight alongside Russian forces. Families of those still in Russia are seeking clarity on their return, as concerns grow over their prolonged stay in the war zone.



Indian Citizenship:

Ø  Defined under Articles 5 to 11 of the Indian Constitution.

Ø  Principles include birth, descent, registration, naturalization, and incorporation of territory.

Ø  Acquired through birth, descent, registration, or naturalization.

Modes of Acquiring Indian Citizenship:

  • Citizenship by Birth – Persons born in India on or after January 26, 1950, are Indian citizens by birth, unless their parents are diplomats or enemy aliens.
  • Citizenship by Descent – Persons born outside India on or after January 26, 1950, but before December 10, 1992, are Indian citizens if either parent was an Indian citizen at the time of their birth.
  • Citizenship by Registration – For persons of Indian origin residing in India for 7 years before making an application for registration.
  • Citizenship by Naturalization – For foreigners who have resided in India for 12 years (previously 11 years).

Loss of Indian Citizenship:

Renunciation, Termination, Deprivation, and Acquisition of a Foreign Citizenship are some ways to lose Indian citizenship.

Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), 2019: Provides citizenship to Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan who entered India before December 31, 2014, due to religious persecution.

Dual Citizenship:

India does not recognize dual citizenship. Indian citizens acquiring foreign citizenship must renounce Indian citizenship.

International Context:

  • UN Conventions – Various conventions address statelessness and the rights of refugees, influencing national citizenship laws.
  • Statelessness – Issues related to stateless persons and global efforts to resolve them.

Recent Developments:

Government policies and initiatives related to citizenship, including amendments, reforms, and international treaties affecting Indian citizens abroad.


Question (Year: 2018 – Mains): Discuss the provisions under the Indian Constitution regarding the acquisition and termination of citizenship.

Question (Year: 2019 – Mains): Explain the significance of the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), 2019, in the context of India’s internal and external dynamics.



    India and Russia aim to increase bilateral trade to $100 billion by 2030, focusing on energy, infrastructure, and agriculture, while exploring the use of national currencies to bypass Western sanctions, agreed during the 22nd Annual Summit between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Vladimir Putin.




    India and Russia aim to boost bilateral trade to $100 billion by 2030, focusing on energy, infrastructure, and agriculture. During the 22nd Annual Summit, Modi and Putin discussed using national currencies to circumvent Western sanctions and signed agreements on projects in Russia’s Far East, while also enhancing connectivity and signing MoUs on climate change and legal arbitration.


    Bilateral trade:


    Bilateral trade refers to the exchange of goods, services, and investments between two countries.


Economic Growth – Bilateral trade fosters economic growth and development by expanding markets for goods and services.

Political Relations – It strengthens diplomatic ties and promotes cooperation in various sectors.

Strategic Importance – Bilateral trade can enhance strategic partnerships, influence foreign policy decisions, and improve geopolitical relations.


Components of Bilateral Trade:

Goods – Exchange of physical products such as machinery, textiles, minerals, etc.

Services – Includes sectors like finance, tourism, telecommunications, and education.

Investments – Direct investments by companies in each other’s economies, promoting business partnerships and joint ventures.


Factors Affecting Bilateral Trade:

Trade Agreements – Bilateral trade agreements (BTAs) and free trade agreements (FTAs) can reduce tariffs, quotas, and trade barriers.

Currency Exchange Rates – Fluctuations in exchange rates impact the cost and competitiveness of goods.

Political Relations – Stability and policies of the governments involved can influence trade flows.

Market Demand – Consumer preferences, economic conditions, and technological advancements drive trade patterns.


India’s Bilateral Trade Relations:

Major Partners: Countries like USA, China, UAE, Saudi Arabia, and European Union are key trading partners of India.

Sectoral Focus: India trades in sectors like IT services, pharmaceuticals, textiles, agriculture, and automobiles.

Challenges: Issues like trade deficits, non-tariff barriers, intellectual property rights, and geopolitical tensions impact bilateral trade.


Government Initiatives and Policies:

Make in India: Initiative to promote manufacturing and boost exports.

Trade Policy: Regularly updated to align with global trade dynamics and promote competitiveness.

Export Promotion Schemes: Schemes like MEIS (Merchandise Exports from India Scheme) and SEIS (Service Exports from India Scheme) to incentivize exports.



Question (Year: 2018 – Prelims):

   Consider the following pairs:

  1. Basmati rice: Iran
  2. Chilli: China
  3. Coffee: Brazil

   Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

Answer: Only 3 (Coffee: Brazil). This question tests knowledge of agricultural exports and bilateral trade relationships.


Question (Year: 2019 – Prelims):

   The WTO’s Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA), which came into force in 2017, aims to:

  1. a) Streamline customs procedures
  2. b) Reduce tariffs on agricultural products
  3. c) Curb subsidies on industrial products

Answer: a) Streamline customs procedures. This question focuses on international trade agreements and their objectives.


Question (Year: 2017 – Mains):

  • Analyze India’s trade relations with Africa and their potential in the context of Africa-India Summit. Question (Year: 2018 – Mains):
  • Discuss the challenges and opportunities related to India’s bilateral trade relations with the European Union. Question (Year: 2020 – Mains):
  • Examine the impact of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) on India’s bilateral trade relations.





he recent breakthrough by a team from IIT-Madras, led by Dr. Thalappil Pradeep, involves creating mineral nanoparticles using microdroplets of water, a discovery hailed as “striking and non-intuitive” by scientists. This method utilizes tiny water droplets to break down minerals suspended within them into nanoparticles, potentially influencing fields from the origin of life to agricultural soil improvement. This research underscores the profound chemical reactivity of water microdroplets, suggesting applications in agriculture to convert unproductive soil and desertified areas into fertile land by supplying silica nanoparticles crucial for plant growth.




Researchers at IIT-Madras have achieved a breakthrough by using tiny water droplets to transform suspended minerals into nanoparticles, a discovery lauded for its implications ranging from the origin of life to enhancing agricultural soil. This innovative method involves microdroplets, a thousandth the size of a raindrop, which due to their compact nature and unique chemical reactivity, facilitate rapid chemical transformations that bulk water cannot. The findings could revolutionize agriculture by suggesting a method to convert unproductive soils and desertified areas into fertile land through the application of silica nanoparticles crucial for plant growth.




  • Properties: Nanoparticles exhibit high surface area to volume ratio, enhanced reactivity, and altered optical, magnetic, and catalytic properties compared to bulk materials.
  • Applications: Widely used in fields such as medicine (drug delivery systems, imaging agents), electronics (nano-electronics), environment (pollution remediation), and agriculture (crop improvement).
  • Synthesis Methods: Produced through various methods including chemical synthesis, physical methods like grinding and milling, and biological methods using microbes or plants.
  • Health and Environmental Impact: Concerns include potential toxicity due to increased surface area and ability to cross biological barriers, necessitating rigorous safety assessments.
  • Regulation: Nanoparticles are regulated in some countries due to safety concerns; international bodies like ISO and OECD work on standardization and risk assessment.
  • Research and Development: Ongoing research explores novel applications and safer synthesis techniques, aiming for sustainable and responsible nanotechnology.



Year: 2020 (Mains):

Question: Discuss the applications of nanoparticles in medicine and agriculture.

HINT: Nanoparticles are used in medicine for drug delivery systems, imaging agents, and targeted therapies. In agriculture, they can enhance nutrient delivery, improve plant growth, and remediate soil pollutants.

Year: 2018 (Mains):

Question: Discuss the challenges associated with the commercialization of nanoparticles.

HINT: Challenges include safety concerns regarding toxicity, regulatory hurdles, ethical considerations, and the need for standardized testing and risk assessment protocols.