Keystone IAS Academy



The news about Tahawwur Rana’s potential extradition to India is significant due to its implications regarding justice for the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks. The U.S. attorney’s assertion that Rana can be extradited under the U.S.-India extradition treaty highlights progress in legal proceedings that have long sought accountability for the tragic events that resulted in numerous casualties. Rana’s legal challenges and the arguments presented in court underscore the complexity and international cooperation involved in addressing cross-border terrorism cases.



  • Tahawwur Rana, linked to 2008 Mumbai attacks, can be extradited to India under U.S.-India treaty, states U.S. attorney.
  • Assistant U.S. Attorney Bram Alden affirms India’s probable cause for Rana’s prosecution in terrorism case.
  • Rana’s appeal against extradition order denied by U.S. District Court; legal battle intensifies.
  • Case highlights international cooperation and legal complexities in extradition of terrorism suspects.


The 2008 Mumbai attacks, commonly referred to as 26/11, were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred in Mumbai, India, from November 26 to 29, 2008.

  • Ten gunmen affiliated with the Pakistan-based militant organization Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) carried out the attacks.
  • The attackers arrived by sea and targeted multiple locations across Mumbai, including luxury hotels (Taj Mahal Palace Hotel, Oberoi Trident Hotel), a Jewish community center (Nariman House), and the iconic Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus (CSMT) railway station, among others.

Casualties and Damage – The attacks resulted in the deaths of 166 people and injured over 300. The gunmen engaged in prolonged gun battles with Indian security forces and held hostages at various locations.

Timeline and Response – The attacks began on the evening of November 26, 2008, and continued for approximately 60 hours. Indian security forces, including the National Security Guard (NSG), Mumbai Police, and Marine Commandos (Marcos), responded to neutralize the attackers and rescue hostages. The operations involved significant challenges due to the complexity of urban warfare and the multiple locations under siege simultaneously

International Ramifications – The attacks drew global condemnation and raised concerns about terrorism, security, and state-sponsored extremism. India accused Pakistan of harboring and supporting the attackers, leading to strained diplomatic relations between the two countries.

Investigations and Trials – The Indian government conducted extensive investigations to identify the perpetrators and their backers. David Coleman Headley, an American of Pakistani origin, and Tahawwur Rana were linked to aiding the attackers and faced legal proceedings in India and the United States.


  • The Mumbai attacks prompted India to bolster its counter-terrorism measures, including intelligence sharing, security infrastructure improvements, and strategic responses to future threats.
  • It highlighted vulnerabilities in India’s coastal security and underscored the need for comprehensive national security reforms.

Legacy and Lessons Learned – The attacks left a lasting impact on India’s security policies and international relations, emphasizing the ongoing threat of terrorism and the imperative of global cooperation in combating it. They serve as a pivotal case study in understanding the complexities of transnational terrorism, intelligence failures, and the challenges of urban security.


  • Rana, a Pakistani-origin Canadian businessman, is facing extradition under the U.S.-India extradition treaty based on India’s establishment of probable cause for his role in the attacks.
  • Court Proceedings: Assistant U.S. Attorney Bram Alden argued in a U.S. Court of Appeals that Rana is extraditable, despite Rana’s appeal against a previous denial of habeas corpus.
“Habeas corpus” is a legal principle that ensures individuals have the right to challenge unlawful detention before a court, protecting against arbitrary arrest and upholding personal liberty, crucial in upholding the rule of law and fundamental rights in democratic societies
  • International Implications: The case underscores international cooperation in addressing terrorism and legal complexities involved in extraditing suspects across borders.
  • Security and Diplomatic Issues: Rana’s extradition proceedings highlight India’s efforts to bring perpetrators of cross-border terrorism to justice and the implications for bilateral relations between India and Pakistan.


Year: 2009 (Mains)    Question: Discuss the implications of the terrorist attack on the Taj Hotel in Mumbai.

Year: 2018 (prelims)  Question:

    Terms sometimes seen in the news                           Country sometimes seen in the news

  • Rohingya                                                                                            Myanmar
  • Kurd                                                                                                        Syria
  • Boko Haram                                                                                         Nigeria

    Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

    Answer: All the pairs are correctly matched.