Keystone IAS Academy


The news revolves around the implementation of three new criminal laws in the country, replacing established legal frameworks like the Indian Penal Code, Code of Criminal Procedure, and Indian Evidence Act. Despite concerns over readiness, these laws came into force on July 1. There’s apprehension about inadequate preparation within the policing and judicial systems, minimal training for personnel, and lack of widespread discussion or debate on the laws’ provisions and their potential impact. Critics also highlight issues such as the unfamiliar Hindi names of the laws and ambiguities surrounding police powers and terrorism-related offenses under the new legal regime.



The implementation of three new criminal laws in India, replacing longstanding codes, has sparked concerns over the readiness of policing and judicial systems. Despite minimal training and preparation, the laws came into effect on July 1, prompting fears of initial confusion and skepticism over their impact due to lack of debate and preparation.




Indian Penal Code (IPC):

  • Enacted in 1860, the IPC is the main criminal code of India, covering substantive aspects of criminal law, including definitions of crimes and punishments.
  • Divided into 23 chapters with over 500 sections, it classifies crimes under various heads such as offenses against the state, public tranquility, and persons.
  • Defines and penalizes offenses ranging from theft, assault, and murder to more complex crimes like fraud, defamation, and cybercrimes.
  • Has undergone amendments to reflect societal changes and legal developments, maintaining its core principles of justice, deterrence, and rehabilitation.

Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC):

  • Enacted in 1973, the CrPC governs the procedural aspects of criminal law, ensuring fair trials and due process.
  • Covers procedures for investigation, arrest, bail, trials, and sentencing, aiming to safeguard the rights of both victims and accused.
  • Organized into 37 chapters with over 480 sections, outlining the roles of police, judiciary, and other stakeholders in the criminal justice system.
  • Facilitates efficient and transparent administration of criminal justice, balancing the interests of justice with individual liberties.
  • Regularly amended to adapt to legal reforms and ensure alignment with constitutional guarantees of fairness and equity.

Indian Evidence Act:

  • Enacted in 1872, the Indian Evidence Act governs the admissibility and presentation of evidence in Indian courts.
  • Provides rules and guidelines for the collection, examination, and presentation of evidence to establish facts in criminal and civil cases.
  • Defines types of evidence (oral, documentary, and circumstantial), rules of relevancy, admissibility criteria, and privileges.
  • Organized into 11 chapters with 167 sections, it ensures fair trials by preventing the admission of unreliable or prejudicial evidence.
  • Applies across all courts in India, guiding judges, lawyers, and parties on the principles of evidence-based adjudication.
  • These acts form the cornerstone of India’s criminal justice system, ensuring both substantive justice through the IPC and procedural fairness through the CrPC and the rules of evidence under the Indian Evidence Act.


The recent implementation of three new criminal laws in India marks a significant overhaul in the legal framework, replacing longstanding codes such as the Indian Penal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedure, and the Indian Evidence Act. Named as the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita, and Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam respectively, these laws have stirred widespread concerns about the readiness of the country’s policing and judicial systems for their enforcement.


  • There have been reports of rudimentary training provided to station-house police personnel and sporadic workshops. An upgrade to the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) aims to facilitate electronic filing of complaints. However, the overall preparedness across upper and lower echelons of the police remains uncertain.
  • The laws were enforced on July 1 without adequate readiness, leading to fears of initial confusion and inefficiency in their application. Critics argue that more time should have been allocated for comprehensive training and preparation among law enforcement officials.


Criticism and Challenges:


  1. Language and Naming: The new laws are criticized for their obscure Hindi names without English equivalents, posing accessibility challenges for non-Hindi speakers. This contrasts with historical precedents where changes in criminal laws retained English names for wider understanding and acceptance.
  1. Legislative Process: There are concerns that the laws were not thoroughly debated in the legislature, despite a Parliamentary Standing Committee’s review and recommendations for changes. Limited public consultation also raised doubts about the transparency and inclusivity of the legislative process.
  1. Provisions and Empowerment: Specific provisions, such as expanded police custody rights and the inclusion of terrorism as an ordinary criminal offense alongside existing anti-terrorism laws, raise concerns about potential misuse and citizen rights infringements. The flexibility given to states to amend these laws without clear timelines for presidential assent adds further uncertainty.
  1. Impact and Uncertainty: While procedural reforms like mandatory FIR registration and the introduction of videography for searches and seizures are welcomed for enhancing transparency, there is palpable uncertainty about the overall impact of these laws on the criminal justice system. Questions linger about their effectiveness, especially in light of the hurried implementation amidst perceived inadequacies in preparedness.


In conclusion, the introduction of these new criminal laws represents a significant legislative shift in India, aiming to modernize and streamline legal procedures. However, the rushed implementation has sparked concerns about operational readiness, transparency, and potential implications for citizen rights and legal processes. As stakeholders navigate through the initial phase of adaptation, ongoing scrutiny and adjustments may be necessary to address emerging challenges and ensure effective implementation in the long term.



Year: 2021(prelims):

Question: Which one of the following statements is correct about the provisions made in the ‘Criminal Procedure Code’ (CrPC)?

     – (a) The Magistrate can pass a sentence for a term not exceeding three years

     – (b) In cognizable offenses, arrest of a person can be made only after an investigation is conducted

     – (c) If a person is accused of a bailable offense, the police cannot arrest him without a warrant

     – (d) None of the above


Year: 2019(prelims):

Question: Consider the following statements:

  1. Under Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2018, stalking was made punishable by inserting Section 354D into IPC.
  2. IPC 1860 was amended to provide legal support to women who are victims of acid attacks.

     – Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

     – (a) 1 only

     – (b) 2 only

     – (c)Both 1 and 2

     – (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Year: 2020(Mains):

Question: The role of public health institutions and their importance in the delivery of health services has been significantly emphasized in the National Health Policy, 2017. Discuss the challenges in the implementation of the policy in the context of mental health care in India. (Related to criminal laws concerning mental health and public health institutions).

Year: 2019(Mains):

Question: Discuss the constitutional validity of the provisions related to the criminal defamation in the Indian Penal Code. (Constitutional validity questions often touch upon criminal laws and their application).

Year: 2018(Mains):

Question: Discuss the role played by Information Technology in violating the rights of an individual. How does the Information Technology Act, 2000 attempt to protect an individual from these violations? (Relates to cyber crimes and their handling under criminal laws).



The Hosur airport’s realization hinges on negotiating regulatory hurdles, including a restriction on new airports near Bengaluru until 2033.Proposed for its strategic location and industrial significance, it aims to boost connectivity and economic growth, requiring clearance from the Civil Aviation Ministry involving rigorous scrutiny and governmental approvals.


The Hosur airport’s future depends on overcoming regulatory barriers, including a 150 km restriction from Bengaluru until 2033.Key obstacles include regulatory restrictions due to an existing airport concession agreement and the lengthy approval process involving the Civil Aviation Ministry. Hosur’s strategic location near Bengaluru and its booming industrial sector make it an ideal candidate for enhancing regional connectivity and economic growth. Clearance from the Civil Aviation Ministry requires thorough scrutiny by a Steering Committee and approval from the Union Cabinet, considering impacts on existing infrastructure and regional development needs.


Tamil Nadu’s proposal to establish an international airport in Hosur, near Bengaluru, has sparked considerable interest and debate due to its potential economic impact and the regulatory challenges it faces.

Context and Proposal:

Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M.K. Stalin recently announced plans to develop a state-of-the-art international airport on 2,000 acres of land in Hosur. This airport aims to handle up to three crore passengers annually, catering not only to Hosur but also to neighboring districts such as Dharmapuri and Salem. The proposal is rooted in addressing long-standing demands from industrialists and leveraging Hosur’s strategic location on the Tamil Nadu-Karnataka border, approximately 40 km from Bengaluru.

Challenges and Obstacles:

A significant obstacle is the existing concession agreement between the Centre and Bangalore International Airport Ltd (BIAL), which prohibits the development of new airports within 150 km of Bengaluru until 2033. This poses a direct challenge to the Hosur airport project unless exemptions are granted.

  • Developing an international airport requires substantial infrastructure investment, including road networks, water supply systems, and other amenities. Ensuring environmental clearances amidst industrial and residential growth in Hosur is crucial but challenging.
  • The project’s progress depends heavily on negotiations between the Tamil Nadu government, which supports the airport, and the Central government, which oversees aviation regulations and approvals.

Significance of Hosur:

Hosur has emerged as a vital industrial hub, boasting a diverse economic landscape encompassing auto manufacturing, electronics, logistics, and traditional sectors like floriculture. The town’s elevation of 3,000 meters above sea level and its rapid population growth underscore its potential as a pivotal economic center, warranting enhanced connectivity through an international airport.


Union Civil Aviation Ministry Guidelines:

The approval process for greenfield airports, such as the one proposed in Hosur, involves several stages:

  • The Directorate General of Civil Aviation evaluates proposals based on their impact on existing airports and regional development.
  • Chaired by the Secretary of Civil Aviation, this committee assesses the proposal’s feasibility and makes recommendations to the Ministry of Civil Aviation.
  • Final approval rests with the Union Cabinet, which considers the committee’s recommendations before the DGCA grants operational licenses.

Comparison with Jewar Airport:

In 2017, the Centre granted in-principle approval for the Jewar Airport in Greater Noida, emphasizing its role in alleviating congestion at the Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi. This approval process highlights the meticulous scrutiny and strategic considerations that greenfield airport projects undergo at the national level.

Future Prospects:

While the Hosur airport project holds promise for regional development and economic growth, its realization hinges on navigating regulatory complexities, securing exemptions from existing agreements, and ensuring robust infrastructural support. The Tamil Nadu government’s role in fostering political consensus and addressing environmental concerns will be crucial in shaping the project’s future. In conclusion, the Hosur airport proposal represents a significant infrastructural endeavor aimed at bolstering regional connectivity and economic dynamism, contingent upon overcoming formidable regulatory and developmental challenges.


Year: 2021(Prelims):

Question: Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP), 2016?

  1. It aims to enhance regional connectivity through fiscal support and infrastructure development.
  2. It provides for a Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS) known as UDAN (Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik).
  3. It mandates all Indian airlines to have a fleet of at least 20 aircrafts.

     – Select the correct answer using the code given below:

       – (a) 1 and 2 only

       – (b) 2 and 3 only

       – (c) 1 and 3 only

       – (d) 1, 2, and 3

Year: 2017(prelims):

Question: With reference to the Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS), consider the following statements:

  1. It aims to provide connectivity to unserved and underserved airports across the country.
  2. It seeks to achieve this by capping airfares and providing Viability Gap Funding (VGF) to airlines.

     – Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

     – (a) 1 only

     – (b) 2 only

     – (c)Both 1 and 2

     – (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Year: 2020(Mains):

Question: Analyze the challenges and opportunities in the development of regional airports in India. How can their development contribute to economic growth and regional connectivity? Discuss with suitable examples. (Related to the expansion and role of regional airports)

Year: 2018(Mains):

Question: The UDAN scheme is a key component of the National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP), 2016. Discuss its features and significance in enhancing regional connectivity in India. (Specifically focuses on UDAN scheme and its impact on airport construction and connectivity)